Mennyibe kerül az EU-s állampolgárság?

Sergio Carrera

Absztrakt


A tanulmány a máltai állampolgárság-árusítási ügy kapcsán azt a kérdést járja körül, vajon mennyiben és milyen jogelvek mentén korlátozható az Unió tagállamainak kizárólagos jogköre az állampolgársági ügyek szabályozására. A máltai törvénymódosítás és az azzal bevezetni kívánt befektetői állampolgárság program eredeti formájában biztosította volna, hogy bárki máltai – következésképp uniós – állampolgárrá válhat, aki egy tekintélyesebb összeget a máltai államnak adományoz, vagy ott befektet. A máltai program kapcsán az EU sikeresen szólt bele a szabályozás fontos részleteibe, megkövetelve többek közt a tényleges tartózkodási kritérium bevezetését a gyorsított honosítás feltételeként. A sikeres intervenció azonban további kérdésekhez vezet, például hogy mi a helyzet azokkal az országokkal, melyekben hasonló programok vannak hatályban, illetve hogy az Unió érvelésében megjelenő jogelvek, így a tényleges kapcsolat elvárása nem fordíthatók-e ki, és használhatók fel bizonyos csoportoknak az állampolgárok köréből való kizárására.

This paper examines the Maltese citizenship-for-sale affair and its relevance for current and future configurations of citizenship of the EU. The affair has revealed the increasing relevance of a set of European and international legal principles limiting member states’ discretion over citizenship matters. The affair has placed at the forefront the EU general principle of sincere cooperation in nationality matters. Member states’ actions in the citizenship domain cannot negatively affect in substance the concept and freedoms of European citizenship. That notwithstanding, the European institutions’ insistence on the need for Maltese nationality law to require a ‘genuine link’ in the form of an effective residence criteria for any rich applicants to benefit from the fast-track naturalisation poses a fundamental dilemma from the angle of Union citizenship: what is this genuine link really about? It is argued that by supporting the ‘real connections’ as the most relevant standard, the European institutions may be paradoxically fuelling nationalistic misuses by member states of the ‘genuine link’ as a way to justify restrictive integration policies on the acquisition of nationality.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17355/rkkpt.v22i2.22

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